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From the link:

Other novel cyber approaches can affect sea power. China is investing heavily in cyber-enabled cognitive manipulation to shape population behavior.17 Attention-based economic models use neuroscience to generate addictive properties in social media platforms, such as Chinese-controlled TikTok.18 Especially popular with young sailors, TikTok captures biometric, personally identifiable, and geolocational data on users and makes it available to Chinese authorities. It is also a useful means to push narratives that influence behaviors and attitudes. This opens the door to a variety of influence, exploitation, and subversion operations on military and civilian personnel integral to American sea power.19

 
From 2019

Ghost ships, crop circles, and soft gold: A GPS mystery in Shanghai​

A sophisticated new electronic warfare system is being used at the world’s busiest port. But is it sand thieves or the Chinese state behind it?

By Mark Harrisarchive page
November 15, 2019

On a sultry summer night in July 2019, the MV Manukai was arriving at the port of Shanghai, near the mouth of the Huangpu River. This busy tributary of the Yangtze winds through the city and includes the Bund, a historic waterfront area and tourist hot spot. Shanghai would be the American container ship’s last stop in China before making its long homeward journey to Long Beach, California.

As the crew carefully maneuvered the 700-foot ship through the world’s busiest port, its captain watched his navigation screens closely. By international law, all but the smallest commercial ships have to install automatic identification system (AIS) transponders. Every few seconds, these devices broadcast their identity, position, course, and speed and display AIS data from other ships in the area, helping to keep crowded waterways safe. The position data for those transponders comes from GPS satellites.

Continues here:
 
From Ghost ships link

"Now, new research and previously unseen data show that the Manukai, and thousands of other vessels in Shanghai over the last year, are falling victim to a mysterious new weapon that is able to spoof GPS systems in a way never seen before."​
remember the Navy ship crashing into the tanker??
 
From the link:

WASHINGTON — The U.S. Navy is moving quickly to link its fleet through its Project Overmatch initiative, which has been kept almost entirely secret for two years.

Shielded from public view, the service has undertaken a flurry of work: simulating current pathways for data, writing software code to close gaps, testing it in a lab and at sea, and providing feedback to coders to improve future iterations.

 
THE GREAT DISCONNECT

Shipping has changed more in the last two years than it did in the entire decade before that. Digitalisation has given the industry new ways of working that has kept world trade moving through a global pandemic as well as enabling a multitude of new efficiencies. But the shipping industry’s increasing reliance on digital tools is not without risks.

The Great Disconnect takes into account the views of more than 200 industry professionals through a combination of an industry survey and research interviews conducted with cyber security experts and stakeholders.

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