Followed the twit url
Watch them turn it into hypersonic weapons of war....
through the atmosphere
below altitudes of about 90 km at speeds greater than Mach 5
, a speed where dissociation
of air begins to become significant and high heat loads
exist. Speeds of Mach 25+ have been achieved below the thermosphere
as of 2020.
The first manufactured object to achieve hypersonic flight was the two-stage Bumper
rocket, consisting of a WAC Corporal
second stage set on top of a V-2
first stage. In February 1949, at White Sands
, the rocket reached a speed of 8,290 km/h (5,150 mph), or about Mach 6.7.
The vehicle, however, burned on atmospheric re-entry
, and only charred remnants were found. In April 1961, Russian Major Yuri Gagarin
became the first human to travel at hypersonic speed, during the world's first piloted orbital flight
. Soon after, in May 1961, Alan Shepard
became the first American and second person to fly hypersonic when his capsule reentered the atmosphere at a speed above Mach 5 at the end of his suborbital flight
over the Atlantic Ocean.
In November 1961, Air Force Major Robert White
flew the X-15
research plane at speeds over Mach 6.
On 3 October 1967, in California, an X-15 reached Mach 6.7.
The reentry problem
of a space vehicle was extensively studied.
The NASA X-43
A flew on scramjet
for 10 seconds, and then glided for 10 minutes on its last flight in 2004. The Boeing X-51 Waverider
flew on scramjet for 210 seconds in 2013, finally reaching Mach 5.1 on its fourth flight test. The hypersonic regime has since become the subject for further study during the 21st century, and strategic competition
between the United States, India, Russia, and China.
Main article: Hypersonic speed
The stagnation point
of air flowing around a body is a point where its local velocity is zero.
At this point the air flows around this location. A shock wave
forms, which deflects the air from the stagnation point and insulates the flight body from the atmosphere.
This can affect the lifting ability of a flight surface to counteract its drag and subsequent free fall
In order to maneuver in the atmosphere at faster speeds than supersonic, the forms of propulsion can still be airbreathing systems, but a ramjet
does not suffice for a system to attain Mach 5, as a ramjet slows down the airflow to subsonic.
Some systems (waveriders
) use a first stage rocket to boost a body into the hypersonic regime. Other systems (boost-glide
vehicles) use scramjets
after their initial boost, in which the speed of the air passing through the scramjet remains supersonic. Other systems (munitions
) use a cannon for their initial boost.